2. You know that you see/hear/touch/taste/smell what you see/hear/touch/taste/smell. What you see proves that it looks like what you see. It is literally self-evident.
3. Math can be knowledge, if the deduction is proved.
4. Science can be knowledge, if the probability math that the results of an experiment are not random is proved.
5. Logic can be knowledge, if the deduction is proved.
6. Philosophy, politics, and economics, (and history, and literature) can be knowledge to the extent it can be proven by math, science, and/or logic.
7. Empiricists believe that knowledge comes from perception.
8. Analytics believe that knowledge comes from the analysis of concepts.
9. An Empirical Essentialist (like me) believes that knowledge comes from the analysis of concepts, but knowledge of those concepts comes (originally, in the first instance) from perception.
10. A Philosophical Scientist (like me) believes that, because the origin of concepts is perception, after you have analyzed concepts to reach a conclusion, you should be able to test that conclusion against independent perceptions (an experiment) in order to validate the conclusion and prove that it is true. This is why Analytic philosophy achieves knowledge.